The technique

X-ray crystallography is the most universal method for the determination of three-dimensional structures of molecules at atomic resolution. It can be applied to both small molecules and macromolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes. When X-rays pass through a crystalline specimen, this results in diffraction. Intensities of the diffracted X-rays hold information on the structure of the crystal. While the basic principles of structure determination are the same for small and macromolecules, the equipment and approaches to structure determination are quite distinct.


•    Determination of the three-dimensional structures of macromolecules, especially protein-protein and protein ligand complexes.

Facilities available

  • Rigaku HU-2R X-ray generator with chromium anode, Raxis IV++ X-ray detector, Raxis II X-ray detector

This instrument is specialized for SAD (single-) and MAD (multiple-wavelength anomalous dipersion) phasing technique applications. The Cr Kα radiation has a wavelength of 2.29029 Å, which is ideal for measuring the anomalous signal from sulphur atoms. 

  • FR-E high brilliance X-ray generator  for measuring data from small crystals and large unit cells, two Raxis IV++ X-ray detectors

This instrument is the workhorse instrument for measuring diffraction data from protein crystals. The copper anode produces Cu Kα radiation (wavelength 1.54178 Å). The combination of the X-ray generator and the optical systems produce high intensity beams ideal for small-size macromolecular crystals, as well as crystals with large unit cells.

Sample requirements

Macromolecular crystal of at least 10 μm in all three dimensions, ideally larger than this.

Analysis of data

Consult: Dr. Karl Byriel,, Tel: 33662929
Prof. Bostjan Kobe,, Tel. 33652132
Dr. Luke Guddat,, Tel. 33653549
Prof. Jenny Martin,, Tel. 33662016


Rigaku/MSC a radiation licence is required to be issued specifically for this system. You must be accompanied by a licensed user at all times to use this equipment.

Dr Karl Byriel, X-ray Facility Manager, Floor 2, IMB
Email: telephone:  3366 2929

Charges for use

Available on application.

Other information



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